David D. Ho, MD

  • Clyde '56 and Helen Wu Professor of Medicine
Profile Headshot


Academic Appointments

  • Clyde '56 and Helen Wu Professor of Medicine

Administrative Titles

  • Director, Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center
  • Director, Wu Family China Center


  • Chinese
  • Taiwanese


  • Male

Credentials & Experience

Education & Training

  • BS, 1974 Biology/Physics, California Institute of Technology
  • MD, 1978 Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA
  • Residency: 1982 UCLA School of Medicine
  • Fellowship: 1985 Massachusetts General Hospital

Honors & Awards

1991 Ernst Jung-Preis Fur Medizin 1991 (Ernst Jung Price in Medicine 1991, Germany)

1993 Awardee, Mayor’s (NY) Award for Excellence in Science and Technology

1994 Fellow, American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)

1996 Squibb Award, Infectious Diseases Society of America

1997 Bernard Fields Memorial Award

1997 Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences

1997 Member, National Academy of Medicine (formerly Institute of Medicine)

1998 Member, Academia Sinica, Republic of China

1999 Hoechst Marion Roussel Award (now Aventis Award)

2001 Presidential Citizen Medal (under Bill Clinton)

2001 Irene Diamond Professorship, The Rockefeller University

2003 Ahrens Award in Clinical Investigation

2003 Lewis and Jack Rudin New York Prize for Medical Research

2004 Foreign Member, Chinese Academy of Engineering

2006 Inductee, California Hall of Fame

2011 Avant Garde Award, National Institute of Drug Abuse, NIH

2014 Prince Mahidol Award in Medicine, Royal Award from the Kingdom of Thailand

2015 Distinguished Alumni Award, California Institute of Technology

2017 Portrait of a Nation Prize, National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution

2020 National Leadership Award, National AIDS Memorial

2021 Game Changer Award, Asia Society

2022 Stevens Triennial Prize for Excellence in Original Medical Research, Columbia University Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons

2022 Sheikh Hamdan Award for Medical Sciences


Selected Publications

Wang Q, Iketani S, Li Z, Liu L, Guo Y, Huang Y, Bowen AD, Liu M, Wang M, Yu J, Valdez R, Lauring AS, Sheng Z, Wang HH, Gordon A, Liu L, Ho DD.  Alarming antibody evasion properties of rising SARS-CoV-2 BQ and XBB subvariants.  Cell 2023, 186(2):279-286. PMID: 36580913.

Wang Q, Bowen A, Valdez R, Gherasim C, Gordon A, Liu L, Ho DD.  Antibody responses to Omicron BA.4-BA.5 bivalent booster.  N. Engl. J. Med. 2023, 388(6):567-569. PMID: 36630643.

Wang Q, Iketani S, Li Z, Guo Y, Yeh AY, Liu M, Yu J, Sheng Z, Huang Y, Liu L, Ho DD. Antigenic characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariant BA.2.75. Cell Host & Microbe 2022, S1931-3128(22)00419-X.

Iketani S, Mohri H, Culbertson B, Hong SJ, Duan Y,Luck MI, Annavajhala MK, Guo Y, Sheng Z, Uhlemann AC, Sabo Y, Yang H, Chavez A, Ho DD. Multiple pathways for SARS-CoV-2 resistance to nirmatrelvir. Nature 2023, 613(7944):558-564. PMID: 36351451.

Iketani S, Hong SJ, Sheng J, Bahari F, Culbertson B, Atanaki FF, Aditham AK, Kratz AF, Luck MI, Tian R, Goff SP, Montazeri H, Sabo Y, Ho DD, Chavez A. Functional map of SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease reveals tolerant and immutable sites. Cell Host Microbe 2022, 11:S1931-3128(22)00402-4. PMID: 36029764.

Liu L, Meyers KA, Purpura LJ, Nguyen N, Mohri H, Chang JY, Annavajhala MK, Lopes III L, Lee SW, Shah J, Lane B, Cantos A, Tujuru SA, Guo Y, Ford K, Chiu YT, Sheng Z, Choesang T, Castor D, Wang M, Pili C, Van Hoy MN, Wallach A, Horton J, Chen Z, Rosenthal S, McLaren S, Jiang B, Wang F, Lu HH, Uhlemann AC, Ho DD, Yin MT. Development and performance of a point-of-care rapid antigen test for detection of SARS-COV-2 variants. Journal of Clinical Virology Plus 2022; 2(3):100080. PMID: 35528048.

Wang Q, Guo Y, Iketani S, Li Z, Mohri H, Wang M, Yu J, Bowen A, Chang J, Shah J, Nguyen N, Meyers K, Yin M, Sobieszczyk M, Sheng Z, Huang Y, Liu L, Ho DD. Antibody evasion by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5. Nature 2022; 608(7923):603-608. PMID: 35790190.

Charness M, gupta K, Stack G, Strymish J, Adams E, Lindy D, Mohri H, Ho DD. Rapid relapse of symptomatic Omicron SARS-CoV-2 infection following early suppression with Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir. NEJM 2022; 10.1056/NEJMc2206449. Online ahead of print.

Iketani S, Liu L, Guo Y, Liu L, Chan JF, Huang Y, Wang M, Luo Y, Yu J, Chu H, Chik KK, Yin MT, Sobieszczyk ME, Huang Y, Yuen KY, Wang HH, Sheng Z, Ho DD. Antibody evasion properties of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sublineages.  Nature 2022; 604(7906):553-556. PMID: 35240676.

Liu L, Iketani S, Guo Y, Chan JFW, Wang M, Liu L, Luo Y, Chu H, Huang Y, Nair MS, Yu J, Chik KKH, Yuen TTT, Yoon C, To KKW, Chen H, Yin MT, Sobieszczyk ME, Huang Y, Wang HH, Sheng Z, Yuen KY, Ho DD. Striking antibody evasion manifested by the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2. Nature 2022; 602(7898):676-681.

Liu L, Iketani S, Guo Y,  Casner RG, Reddem ER, Nair MS, Yu J, Chan JFW, Wang M, Cerutti G, Li Z, Castagna CD, Corredor L, Chu H, Yuan S, Poon VKM, Chan CCS, Chen Z, Luo Y, Cunningham M, Chavez A, Yin MT, Perlin DS, Tsuji M, Yuen KY, Kwong PD, Sheng Z, Huang Y, Shapiro L, Ho DD. Isolation and comparative analysis of antibodies that broadly neutralize sarbecoviruses. Sci. Transl. Med. 2021. Online ahead of print.

Kissler SM, Fauver JR, Mack C, Tai CG, Breban MI, Watkins AE, Samant RM, Anderson DJ, Metti J, Khullar G, Baits R, MacKay M, Salgado D, Baker T, Dudley JT, Mason CE, Ho DD, Grubaugh ND, Grad YH. Viral dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 variants in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. NEJM 2021; 355(26):2489-2491.

Wang P, Casner RG, Nair MS, Wang M, Yu J, Cerutti G, Liu L, Kwong PD, Huang Y, Shapiro L, Ho DD. Increased resistance of SARS-CoV-2 variant P.1 to antibody neutralization. Cell Host & Microbe 2021; 29(5):747-751.

Annavajhala MK, Mohri H, Zucker JE, Sheng Z, Wang P, Gomez-Simmonds A, Ho DD, Uhlemann AC. A novel SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern, B.1.526, identified in New York. Nature 2021; 597(7878):703-708.

Wang P, Nair MS, Liu L, Iketani S, Luo Y, Guo Y, Wang M, Yu J, Zhang B, Kwong PD, Graham BS, Mascola JR, Chang JY, Yi MT, Sobieszczyk M, Kyratsous CA, Shapiro L, Sheng Z, Nair MS, Huang Y, Ho DD. Increased resistance of SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.351 and B.1.1.7 to antibody neutralization. Nature 2021; 593(7837):130-135.

Iketani S, Forouhar F, Liu H, Hong SJ, Lin FY, Nair M, Zask A, Huang Y, Xing L, Stockwell BR, Chavez A, Ho DD. Lead compounds for the development of SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease inhibitors. Nature Communications 2021; 12(1);2708.

Liu L, Wang P, Nair MS, Yu J, Huang Y, Rapp MA, Wang Q, Luo Y, Sahi V, Figueroa A, Guo XV, Cerutti G, Bimela J, Gorman J, Zhou T, Kwong PD, Sodroski JG, Yin MT, Sheng Z, Shapiro L, Ho DD. Potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies directed to multiple epitopes on the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Nature 2020: 584(7821):450-456.

Wang P, Liu L, Nair M, Yin MT, Luo Y, Wang Q, Yuan T, Mori K, Solis AG, Yamashita M, Purpura LJ, Laracy JC, Sodroski J, Huang Y, Ho DD. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody responses are more robust in patients with severe disease. Emerging Microbes & Infections. 2020; 9(1);2019-2093.

Andrews CD, Huang Y, Ho DD, Liberatore RA. In vivo expressed biologics for infectious disease prophylaxis: rapid delivery of nucleic acid-based antiviral antibodies. Emerging Microbes & Infections 2020; 9(1);1523-1533.

Wang P, Gajjar MR, Yu J, Padte NN, Gettie A, Blanchard JL, Russell-Rodrique K, Liao LE, Perelson AS, Huang Y, Ho DD. Quantifying the contribution of Fc-mediated effector functions to the antiviral activity of of anti-HIV-1 antibodies in vivo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2020, 117(30):18002-18009.

Andrews CD, Luo Y, Sun M, Yu J, Padte NN, Huang Y, Ho DD. Electroporation-based plasmid DNA gene transfer platform technology for protection against multiple infectious diseases. Mol. Therapy: Meth. & Clin. Dev. 2017; 7:74-82.

Huang Y, Yu J, Lanzi A, Andrews CD, Yao X, Sun M, Seaman MS, Padte NN, Ho DD. Engineered bispecific antibodies with exquisite HIV-1 neutralizing activity. Cell 2016; 165:1621-1631.

Andrews CD, Yueh YL, Spreen WR, Bernard LS, Boente-Carrera M, Rodriguez K, Gettie A, Russell-Lodrigue K, Blanchard J, Ford S, Mohri H, Cheng-Mayer C, Hong Z, Ho DD, Markowitz M. Long-acting integrase inhibitor protects female macaques from repeated high-dose intravaginal SHIV challenges. Science Transl. Med. 2015; 7(270):270ra4

Andrews CD, Spreen WR, Mohri H, Moss L, Ford S, Gettie A, Russell-Lodrique K, Bohm RP, Cheng-Mayer C, Hong Z, Markowitz M, Ho DD. Long-acting integrase inhibitor protects macaques from intrarectal simian/human immunodeficiency virus. Science 2014; 343:1151-1154.

Song R, Oren DA, Franco D, Seaman MS, Ho DD. Strategic addition of an N-linked glycan to a monoclonal antibody improves its anti-HIV-1-neutralizing activity. Nature Biotech. 2013; 31:1047-1053.

Pace CS, Song R, Ochsenbauer C, Andrews, CD, Franco D, Yu J, Oren DA, Seaman MS, Ho DD. Bispecific antibodies directed to CD4 domain 2 and HIV envelope exhibit exceptional breadth and picomolar potency against HIV-1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 2013; 110:13540-13545.

Vasan S, Hurley A, Schlesinger SJ, Hannaman D, Gardiner D, Dugin D, Boente-Carrera M, Vittorino R, Caskey M, Andersen J, Huang Y, Cox JH, Tarragona T, Gill DK, Cheeseman H, Clark L, Dally L, Smith C, Schmidt C, Park HH, Kopycinski JT, Gilmour J, Fast P, Bernard R, Ho DD. In vivo electroporation enhances the immunogenicity of an HIV-1 DNA vaccine candidate in healthy volunteers. PLoS One 2011; 6:e19252 (1-10).

Chen MW, Cheng T-J R, Huang Y, Jan J-T, Ma S-H, Yu AL, Wong C-H, Ho DD. A consensus-hemagglutinin-based DNA vaccine that protects mice against divergent H5N1 influenza viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2008; 105:13538-13543.

Lu L, Jia M, Ma Y, Yang L, Chen Z, Ho DD, Jiang Y, Zhang L. The changing face of HIV in China. Nature 2008; 455:609-611.

Chen HY, Di Mascio M, Perelson AS, Ho DD, Zhang L. Determination of virus burst size in vivo using a single-cycle SIV in rhesus macaques.Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2007; 104:19079-19084.

Markowitz M, Mohri H, Mehandru S, Shet A, Berry L, Kalyanaraman R, Kim A, Chung C, Jean-Pierre P, Horowitz A, La Mar M, Wrin T, Parkin N, Poles M, Petropoulos C, Mullen M, Boden D, Ho DD. Infection with multidrug resistant, dual-tropic HIV-1 and rapid progression to AIDS: a case report. Lancet 2005; 365:1031-1038.

Zhang L, Yu, W, He T, Yu J, Caffrey RE, Dalmasso EA, Fu S, Pham T, Mei J, Ho JJ, Zhang W, Lopez P, Ho DD. Contribution of human alpha-defensins-1, -2, and -3 to the anti-HIV-1 activity of CD8 antiviral factor. Science 2002; 298:995-1000.

Mohri H, Perelson AS, Tung K, Ribeiro R, Ramratnam B, Markowitz M, Kost R, Hurley A, Weinberger L, Cesar D, Hellerstein MK, Ho DD. Increased turnover of T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection and its reduction by antiretroviral therapy. J. Exp. Med. 2001; 194:1277-1287.

Ramratnam B, Mittler JE, Zhang L, Boden D, Hurley A, Fang F, Macken CA, Perelson AS, Markowitz M, Ho DD. The decay of the latent reservoir of replication-competent HIV-1 is inversely correlated with the extent of residual viral replication during prolonged antiretroviral therapy. Nature Med. 2000; 6:76-81.

Zhang L, Lewin S, Markowitz M, Lin H-H, Skulsky E, Karanicolas R, He Y, Jin X, Tuttleton S, Vesanen M, Spiegel H, Kost R, J. van Lunzen, H-J. Stellbrink, Wolinsky S, Borkowsky W, Palumbo P, Kostrikis LG, Ho DD. Measuring recent thymic emigrants in blood of normal and HIV-1-infected individuals before and after effective therapy. J. Exp. Med. 1999; 190:725-732.

Ramratnam B, Bonhoeffer S, Binley J, Hurley A, Zhang L, Mittler, Markowitz M, Moore JP, Perelson AS, Ho DD. Rapid production and clearance of HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus particles in infected individuals as defined by large volume plasma apheresis. Lancet 1999; 354:1782-1785.

Jin X, Bauer DE, Tuttleton SE, Lewin S, Gettie A, Kostrikis L, Blanchard J, Irwin CE, Safrit JT, Zhang L, Ho DD. Dramatic rise in plasma viremia after CD8+ T-cell depletion in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques. J. Exp. Med. 1999; 189:991-998.

Zhang L, Ramratnam B, Tenner-Racz, He Y, Vesanen M, Lewin S, Talal A, Racz P, Perelson AS, Korber BT, Markowitz M, Ho DD. Quantifying residual HIV-1 replication in patients receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy. N. Engl. J. Med. 1999; 340:1605-1613.

Kostrikis LG, Huang Y, Moore JP, Wolinsky SM, Zhang L, Guo Y, Deutsch L, Phair J, Neumann AU, Ho DD. A chemokine receptor CCR2 allele delays HIV-1 disease progression and is associated with a CCR5 promoter mutation. Nature Med. 1998; 4:350-353.

Mohri H, Bonhoeffer S, Monard S, Perelson AS, Ho DD. Rapid turnover of T lymphocytes in SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Science 1998; 279:1223-1227.

Zhu T, Korber BT, Nahmias AJ, Hooper E, Sharp PM, Ho DD. An African HIV-1 sequence from 1959 and implications for the origin of the epidemic. Nature 1998; 391:594-597.

Perelson AS, Essunger P, Cao Y, Vesanen M, Hurley A, Saksela K, Markowitz M, Ho DD. Decay characteristics of HIV-1-infected compartments during combination therapy. Nature 1997; 387:188-191.

Huang Y, Paxton WA, Wolinsky SM, Neumann AU, Zhang L, He T, Kang S, Ceradini D, Jin Z, Yazdanbakhsh K, Kunstman K, Erickson D, Dragon E, Landau N, Phair J, Ho DD, Koup RA. The role of a mutant CCR5 allele in HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. Nature Med. 1996; 2:1240-1243.

Perelson AS, Neumann AU, Markowitz M, Leonard J, Ho DD. HIV-1 dynamics in vivo: virion clearance rate, infected cell life-span, and viral generation time. Science 1996; 271:1582-1586.

Markowitz M, Saag M, Powderly W, Hurley AM, Hsu A, Valdes JM, Henry D, Sattler F, La Marca A, Leonard JM, Ho DD. Clinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of ritonavir (ABT-538), an inhibitor of HIV-1 protease. N. Engl. J. Med. 1995; 333:1534-1539.

Ho DD, Neumann AU, Perelson AS, Chen W, Leonard JM, Markowitz M. Rapid turnover of plasma virion and CD4 lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection. Nature 1995; 373:123-126.

Cao Y, Qing L, Zhang GL, Safrit J, Ho DD. Virological and immunological characterization of long-term survivors of HIV-1 infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 1995; 332:201-208.

Koup RA, Safrit JT, Cao Y, Andrews CA, Wu Y, McLeod G, Borkowsky W, Farthing C, Ho DD. The initial control of viremia during primary HIV-1 syndrome is temporally associated with the presence of cellular immune responses. J. Virol. 1994; 69:4650-4655.

Zhu T, Mo H, Wang N, Nam DS, Cao Y, Koup R, Ho DD. Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of HIV-1 in patients with primary infection. Science 1993; 261:1179-1181.

Ho DD, Cao Y, Zhu T, Farthing C, Wang N, Gu G, Schooley RT, Daar ES. Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia (ICL): immunodeficiency without evidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 1993; 328:380-385.

Daar ES, Moudgil T, Meyer RD, Ho DD. Transient high levels of viremia in patients with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 1991; 324:961-964.

Daar ES, Li XL, Moudgil T, Ho DD. High concentrations of recombinant soluble CD4 are required to neutralize primary HIV-1 isolates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1990; 87:6574-6578.

Ho DD, Moudgil T, Alam M. Quantitation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in the blood of infected persons. N. Engl. J. Med. 1989; 321:1621-1625.

Melish ME, Marchette NJ, Kaplan JC, Kihara S, Ching D, Ho DD. Absence of significant RNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity in lymphocytes from patients with Kawasaki syndrome. Nature 1989; 337:288-290.

Ho DD, Rota TR, Hirsch MS. Infection of monocyte-macrophages by human T-lymphotropic virus type III. J. Clin. Investig. 1986; 77:1712-1715.

Ho DD, Sarngadharan MG, Resnick L, diMarzo-Veronese F, Rota TR, Hirsch MS. Primary human T-lymphotropic virus type III infection. Ann. Intern. Med. 1985; 103:880-883.

Ho DD, Rota TR, Schooley RT, Kaplan JC, Allan JD, Groopman JE, Resnick L, Felsenstein D, Andrews CA, Hirsch MS. Isolation of HTLV-III from cerebrospinal fluid and neural tissues of patients with neurologic syndromes related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N. Engl. J. Med. 1985; 313:1493-1497.

Ho DD, Schooley RT, Rota TR, Kaplan JC, Salahuddin SZ, Gonda MA, Hirsch MS. HTLV-III in semen and blood of a healthy homosexual man. Science 1984; 226:451-453.